sábado, 19 de noviembre de 2016

IS SOOTHING A REAL THING!?

Here we are talking about the Soothers (se. Dämpare, es. Aplacadores, fr. Apaiseurs, it. Sedanti, de. Besänftiger, hu. bábos), in Brandon Sanderson's Cosmere, whose special power is repressing the negative emotions of others (unless said others are wearing aluminium hats, which renders them unsensitive to emotional manipulation). Soothing is thus a power that exemplifies the trope Getting Smilies Painted On Your Soul.
Were I asked what special power I would like to have out of the endless list of options, I would definitely choose this one. From healing mum's depression to healing many other depressed people, and maybe putting a full stop to all forms of violence from domestic violence to warfare across Eurasia,
But does Soothing, or Getting Smilies Painted On Your Soul, exist in real life, as the rhetorical question title of this post asks?
Well, since the nervous system runs on chemical impulses, it can be hijacked with chemicals. Drugs, you may think, from ethanol through Xanax to crystal meth, induce euphoria after crossing the blood-brain barrier. And you are right. But there is a more sinister substance whose existence is now widely known... the drug to end all drugs... scopolamine.
Found in nature in plants of the nightshade family (which includes nightshade, datura, tobacco, potatoes, all kinds of peppers [pimientos], physalis...), scopolamine is on the WHO List of Essential Medicines, being used to treat motion sickness (airsickness, seasickness, etc.); GI, renal, and biliary spasms; as well as colics, and used as a premedication to reduce airway secretions as an injection before surgery.

So where is the sinister edge of this two-edged weapon?
Physostigmine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that readily crosses the blood-brain barrier, and has been used as an antidote to treat the central nervous system depression symptoms of scopolamine overdose. Other than this supportive treatmentgastric lavage and induced emesis (vomiting) are usually recommended as treatments for oral overdoses. The symptoms of overdose include:
Furthermore; nowadays thieves, date rapists, and kidnappers left and right poison their targets by giving the victim a scopolamine-laced beverage, in the hope that the victim would become unconscious or unable to effectively resist the robbery/sexual assault/whatever sinister crime the poisoners have in mind. In June 2008, more than 20 people were hospitalized with psychosis in Norway after ingesting counterfeit Rohypnol tablets containing scopolamine.

Recreational use

While it has been occasionally used recreationally for its hallucinogenic properties, the experiences are often unpleasant, mentally and physically. It is also physically dangerous, so repeated use is rare.

Interrogation

The effects of scopolamine were studied for use as a truth serum in interrogations in the early 20th century, but because of the side effects, investigations were dropped.In 2009, it was proven that Czechoslovak communist state security secret police used scopolamine at least three times to obtain confessions from alleged antistate conspirators.
The drug is known to produce loss of memory of events recently before exposure and sleepiness, similar to the effect of benzodiazepines or alcohol poisoning, which affects the ability of a person to resist criminal aggression:
One common and particularly dangerous method that criminals use in order to rob or sexually assult a victim is through the use of drugs. The most common has been scopolamine. Unofficial estimates put the number of annual scopolamine incidents in Colombia at approximately 50,000. Scopolamine can render a victim unconscious for 24 hours or more. In large doses, it can cause respiratory failure and death. It is most often administered in liquid or powder form in foods and beverages. The majority of these incidents occur in night clubs and bars, and usually men, perceived to be wealthy, are targeted by young, attractive women. To avoid becoming a victim of scopolamine, one should never accept food or beverages offered by strangers or new acquaintances or leave food or beverages unattended. Victims of scopolamine or other drugs should seek immediate medical attention.
This drug is employed in robberies, express kidnappings and sexual assault. In the present decade, various Spanish hospitals have introduced a special protocol to help medical workers identify cases.
Podremos hacer una primera aproximación buscando en cualquier manual de toxicología cuales son las características de la intoxicación por escopolamina. Tratándose de una planta venenosa que se conoce desde hace más de quinientos años, parece lógico que la medicina sea capaz de detallar con exactitud qué les sucede a las personas que, de forma voluntaria o no, se intoxican con esta sustancia. Aunque en desuso, la escopolamina tuvo sus indicaciones en medicina antes de la generalización de la anestesia. Así que sus efectos y riesgos están perfectamente documentados. El cuadro clínico de la intoxicación por escopolamina produce disminución de la secreción a través de las glándulas del organismo: sequedad de boca, sed, dificultad para tragar y hablar…se produce una dilatación extrema de las pupilas, que reaccionan muy lentamente a la luz produciendo visión borrosa de los objetos cercanos y, en ocasiones, ceguera transitoria. Puede aparecer fiebre muy alta (hasta 42ºC), convulsionesarritmias cardiacasinsuficiencia respiratoria… Los síntomas de tipo mental (psicosisalucinacionesdelirio…) se citan por parte de la mayoría de los autores así como el hecho de que es mortal en sobredosis.
Sinister indeed. This is one of those cases in which real life surpasses fiction.

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